تبلور اندیشۀ رمانتیک در ساختار کرونوتوپیک حکایات عرفانی بررسی تطبیقی داستان ماهان از هفت‌پیکر نظامی گنجوی و وسوسۀ آنتونیوس قدیس از گوستاو فلوبر

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی

نویسندگان

گروه زبان و ادبیات فرانسه، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، ایران

10.22103/jcl.2020.14799.2939

چکیده

در تعاریفی که در کتابهای تخصصی از رمانتیسم ارائه میشود، برای این مکتب محدودۀ زمانی و مکانی مشخصی تبیین شده، در دوره ای خاص و در جغرافیایی معلوم شکل گرفته، به اوج رسیده، سپس رنگ باخته است. تعابیری همچون پیشرمانتیک یا پسارمانتیک گواهی است دالّ بر صحت این مدعا. در داستانهای رمانتیک، ساختار کرونوتوپیک یا فضازمان، آنگونه که باختین آن را تبیین کرده، مانند پاره ای دیگر همچون روایت یا توصیف، تابع بایسته های رمانتیسم است؛ یعنی پیرو مضامینی مانند تنهایی، تردید، ناخرسندی از زمانه، همچنین خیالپردازی. بررسی تطبیقی ساختار فضازمان حکایت ماهان از هفت پیکر نظامی که هدفش خودشناسی است، با یکی از آثار رمانتیک فرانسه، یعنی وسوسۀ آنتونیوس قدیس، اثر فلوبر که آن نیز هدفی جز ترسیم روند رستگاری شخصیت ندارد، نشان میدهد که شباهتهای فراوانی میان بایسته های مکتب رمانتیسم در داستان فلوبر و مضامین به کاررفته در اثر نظامی وجود دارد. در این مقاله، با تاکید بر ساختار فضازمان، نشان خواهیم داد که این شباهتها، هرچند به دلیل وجود پاره ای شاکله ها و، به رغم دوری فرهنگها و ادوار ادبی، به گونه ای متفاوت نامگذاری میشود، با این حال، نشان از مضامینی دارد که، باوجود چندین سده اختلاف، داستان عرفانی فرانسوی را به همتای خود در ایران نزدیک میسازد و گواهی دال بر وجود شیوه ای همسان در بازنمایی اندیشه ها و دغدغه های مشترک نوع بشر، به ویژۀ در گسترۀ عرفان و خودشناسی

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Representation of romantic thought in the chronotopical structure of mystical stories A Comparative Study of the Mahan's Story from The Seven Beauties by Nezami Ganjavi and The Temptation of Saint Anthony by Flaubert

نویسندگان [English]

  • azin hosseinzadeh
  • katayoun shahpar-rad
département de langue et littérature françaises, université Hakim Sabzévari, IRAN
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Definitions of Romanticism found in academic books on this movement indicate a specific duration and area. That is, at a certain period, it has developed in a well-defined geographical area, it has peaked, then lost its purpose. Concepts such as pre-romantic or post-romantic are evidence of the validity of this claim. In romantic stories, the structure of space-time, as described by Mikhail Bakhtin, is similar to that of other structures, which are subject to the requirements of the school of romanticism. To be more specific, and considering themes such as loneliness, hesitation, disorientation, the discomfort caused by the time or space in which the person lives, as well as daydreaming. a comparative study of the chronotopic structure of Mahan's story in The Seven Beauties by Nezami, a mystical story, with one of the most prominent works of the school of French Romanticism, Gustav Flaubert's Temptation of Saint Anthony, which also traces the process of salvation of the personality, shows that there is a great resemblance between the requirements of romanticism in the history of Flaubert and the themes used in the work of Nezami..
 
2. Methodology
The chronotope, or space structure, is the basis of our research. But in addition to this structure, we will use other factors, the most important of which are: Search for elements of romanticism such as loneliness, fantasy, travel desire, hesitation and ambiguity in understanding the situation. All of these elements come together to create self-knowledge. Thus, the methods of narrative analysis are the most important tools that we will use in this article. Examining the structure of space-time in the context of narratology is a way to show that there are many similarities between Iranian and French stories.
 
3. Discussion
The first story belongs to Flaubert. In one of his books, Temptation of Saint Anthony, he used romantic elements to create the face of the protagonist. From the point of view of space-time, Saint Anthony embarks on a journey in the desert, alone, in the fantasy world, ending in self-knowledge. The story space is a humble cottage, with the most basic living things, in a dry desert with a terrible silence. But it is this space that keeps him immersed in the dream world. Saint Anthony travels in the fantasy world without moving. He goes through time and space, and each time he encounters imaginary and scary creatures. Each of these temptations becomes an obstacle so that he does not become self-aware; temptations like woman, lust, money, possessions, power, cruelty and even the devil himself. But that doesn't stop him from continuing. Each time Saint Anthony sleeps and wakes up, he takes a step forward and gets closer to his goal, knowledge. At the end of the story, it is true that seeing Christ shows that he has reached self-knowledge, but from a chronotopic point of view, despite the repetition of travels, there has been no change of place. Every time Saint Anthony wakes up, he sees that he is in the same desert, in the same humble hut.
Mahan's story in The Seven Beauties shows that what we said about Flaubert also applies to the Nezami; That is to say, all three elements that we saw in the previous book can be seen in this story as well; Mahan, just like Saint Anthony, goes to a dry desert, finds himself alone there, falls asleep from the intensity of fatigue, and, in the imaginary world, he embarks on a journey that ends in self-knowledge. Like Saint Anthony, he encounters amazing creatures. His senses mislead him, every time he thinks what he sees is true. But when he wakes up, he sees that he has made a mistake; he finally wins this fight and sees Khidr. Mahan achieves self-awareness, but despite his many travels, he is still in the first place.
 
4. Conclusion
Travel, withdrawal from solitude, loneliness, dissatisfaction with space and time, and fantasy are among the main forms of romanticism. An examination of the chronotopic structure of the Temptation of Saint Anthony, as a romantic work, illustrates this point: Saint Anthony is an ascetic and lonely man who expresses his feelings and doubts in the desert, away from the people, dissatisfied with the time he lives in. He does not trust what he sees, he looks back and fights all the temptations by taking refuge in the imaginary world. Saint Anthony finally sees Jesus and finds the way to happiness. These traits are also seen in Mahan's story in The Seven Beauties. An examination of the structure of the space-time story shows that Saint Anthony withdraws from the crowd, is afraid of the other, cannot trust what he sees, is dissatisfied with the space and time in which he finds himself, expresses his doubts and regrets the past. In the fantasy world, he encounters amazing creatures, each representing one of the manifestations of lust. He finally sees Khidr and is saved. The space in both stories is divided into real and imaginary parts. The main character of the story is constantly thinking about returning to the previous intimate atmosphere. Both heroes in both stories realize that their perception of the past is wrong; time is divided into present and past. The protagonist constantly regrets the past. Thus, there are striking similarities between Mahan's story in The Seven Beauties and the Temptation of Saint Anthony. Both authors have identified daydreaming as the first step to salvation. Thus, the dream world turns out to be superior to the world of reality and it becomes impossible to achieve happiness without going through the dream.
 
Key words: Space-time, Nezami, Flaubert, Romanticism, Mahan, Anthony.
 
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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Space-time
  • Nezami
  • Flaubert
  • Romanticism
  • Mahan
  • Anthony
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