عنوان مقاله [English]
After the term "Folklore" was coined by Ambroise Morton in 1846 and the beginning of research on folk literature and culture, Studies related to this field had many developments and scientific advances. Research in the field of Persian folk culture and literature also began with the research of orientalists (see Afshari, 1388: 289).
After that, even despite the increasing process of recording the components of folk culture and literature and even the establishment of the orientation of folk literature in 2013 and the specialization of studies in this field in Iran, the research conducted in this field still has obvious flaws. Stopping at the stage of registering the components of folk literature, the ambiguity in the structure and characteristics of these components, and most importantly, the weakness in the theoretical foundations are among the most important things that can be pointed out (see. Aliani et al, 2019: 10).
One of the main reasons for this issue is the neglect of the Arabic sources of the early Islamic centuries as the preservers of Iranian folklore culture and literature in the era of the loss of Persian sources and neglect in the history of folklore Persian literature.. "It is an important issue that the Arabic language played an important role as the preserver of Iranian folklore literature before Islam." (Cejpek, 2014: 27 & 26). Despite this, in addition to the researches that have been done in the field of folklore culture and literature, the importance of these resources and the effective role of the comparative approach have not been paid attention to in the design of the lessons of the folkliterature orientation. Especially since in the list of courses of this heading, there is a course called "Arabic Prose and Poetry" in which these sources are expected to be paid attention to, but these sources were not paid attention to in its design.
Based on this, in this article, while explaining the reasons for the importance of these sources, the most important available Arabic sources are introduced in terms of the reflection of Iranian folk literature and its developments in the first centuries of Islam, And in order to eliminate the existend shortcomings, a heading has been designed for the course "Arabic Poetry and Prose Texts".
Considering the need to refer to Arabic sources for the historical connection of the elements and components of Iranian culture and literature before Islam with the Islamic era, this research has been done by descriptive-analytical method and by analyzing the literature history data available in the library sources.
The task of transferring Iranian culture and literature to Arabic culture and language in the first centuries of Islam has been undertaken by the translation movement. "Many sources of the past folklore of Iran have been translated into Arabic by Iranian scholars such as Ibn Moqfa, Tabari, Masoudi, Thaalebi, Hamzeh Isfahani and others and are available to us today." (Beihaghi, 1365: 41). Despite this, the heading designed for Arabic poetry and prose lesson of the heading of Persian folk literature in order to get familiar with official Arabic literature, including Arabic mystical texts, poems by Arab poets, Arabic works by Persian poets and writers, and contemporary Arabic research texts in the field of language and literature, the Qur'an, Nahj al-Balagha, and commentary texts, Arabic proverbs, phrases and verses common in Persian texts. The general approach and a cursory look in the selection of texts and the focus of this heading on official literature texts and neglecting the importance of the comparative approach do not meet the scientific needs of students in this field. Therefore, the issue of interest in this article is that despite the many reasons for the high importance of Arabic texts in the history of Iranian folk literature, how the sources of Arabic poetry and prose texts in the heading of folk literature to explain the nature of Iranian folk culture and literature and its developments In the first centuries of Islam and attention to the importance of the comparative approach has not been organized?
Reasons for the importance of the comparative approach in the history of Persian folk literature
Some of the most important intratextual and extratextual reasons for the importance of Arabic sources in the field of Iranian folk culture and literature are as follows:
1.The existence of different forms of Iranian folk stories and proverbs and and anecdotes in Arabic sources: in many cases, these sources have become the oldest or only sources of Iranian folklore stories. Such as the reflection of a story about Ardeshir Babkan, in the book "nehayat-al-arab" under the name of Irajosteh and Khosrow in the persian translation of Varavini's Marzbannameh.
The importance of the works of Arabic-speaking Iranian writers and poets, especially the Shaoubians, in terms of recording the components of Iranian folk literature: The Shaoubieh movement is one of the most important factors in the transfer of Iranian folk culture and literature to Arabic culture and sources. The works of this group, such as Ibn Muqafa, Mahmoud vorraq, Saleh ibn Abd al-Quddus and Bashar ibn Burd, contain a large number of poetice or prose form of components of Iranian folk literature such as Iranian proverbs and admonition in Arabic
In Arabic: “The tooth is still worn out, and the one who has it is still in pain and is leaving it. ” (Ibn Muqaffa, 2002: 140).
In Persian: " The eaten by worm (destroyed) tooth of the should be removed " (Amini, 2009: 287).
The importance of Arab collections(collections of poetries and writers works and folklore content too) in Iranian folk culture and literature: whith spread of a new style in Arabic writings is via Jahiz Basri (under name of collection writing) and the creation of numerous works imitating it, the reflecting ideas, admonitions and anecdotes related to folklore culture and literature in written works increased. The reflection of some common beliefs in Iranian culture in Abu hayyan Tawhidi's Al-Emta va Al-Moanesat about trees, animals and mineral stones is one of these (cf. Tawhidi, 2005: 235).
The need to pay attention to the literary components in Arabic sources that have a folk origin: one of the main necessary steps in explaining the importance of Arabic written sources in the field of Iranian folk literature is to pay attention to the literary components that have a folk origin. "There has been a continuous mutual influence between written and oral literature" (wellek, 2013: 41 & 42). Fables, parables, jokes, Arabic folk poems of Iranian origin, quatrains, and beggars' stories originating from Iranian culture are among the most important of this group.
5. The importance of Arabic sources in terms of recording the legendary history of Iranians and its importance in the discussion of mythological studies: the translation of Iranian history sources into Arabic, especially the "Khuday nameh", and the comparison of different characterizations of Iranian mythological champions such as Rostam in these sources with the Shahnameh and Iranian folk culture, It doubles the importance of Arabic sources in studying the history of developments in Iranian mythology.
The influence of Arabic-Islamic culture on the components of Iranian folk literature: When discussing the importance of Arabic sources in the discussion of Iranian folklore literature, it is necessary to consider the effects of Arabic-Islamic culture on Iranian public culture and literature. including the influence of Arabic proverbs and admonitions and the importance of influence of Semitic and Islamic history in the discussion of comparative mythology and the spread of Arabic love stories in Iranian culture.
Authors and important works: the works of Ibn Muqafa as the first collections containing Iranian proverbs and rulings after Islam, the works of Jahiz, the important work of Abu al-Faraj Isfahani called Al-Aghani, the works of Thaalibi Neishabouri, the book of Abu hayyan Tawhidi’s Al-EMtaa and Al-Mu’anasat, the works of Qazi Mohsen Tanukhi and the work of Ragheb Isfahani With the name of Mohazerat al-odaba va Mohaverat al-shoara va al-bolagha, which contain verse and prose form of proverbs and admonitions, anecdotes, stories, superstitions, Arabic stories that are influential in Iranian culture, jokes and popular opinions. these cases are the most important things is the importance of Arabic sources in reflecting folk culture and literature.
Designing the heading of the Iranian folk culture and literature course in Arabic poetry and prose texts: based on the discussed topics, it is suggested to change the title of the Arabic poetry and prose texts course in the Persian folk literature heading to "Iranian folk culture and literature in Arabic prose and poetry texts" and educational topics should be organize under these main headings:
"The importance and role of Nahj al-Balagha and the Holy Quran in Iranian folk culture and literature"
"Iranian admonitions, Arabic admonitions and understanding the importance of moral and religious admonitions and advice in Iranian culture (before and after Islam)"
" Iranian proverbs in sources of Arabic proverbs, Arabic proverbs, stories of proverbs, examples of Arabic poems by Iranian poets (poetice form of proverbs and admonitions)"
"The importance of historical sources in the analysis and investigation of Iranian, Semitic and Islamic mythology and how to synchronize them"
" Analysis and investigation of Iranian folk culture and literature in the Arabic collections"
"Study of Arabic love stories introduced into Persian culture and literature"
"The influence of folk culture and literature in the creation of the literary type of Maghameh"
"Jokes and comical in Arabic sources"
"Familiarization with the research texts of Arabic writers in the field of the connection between Iranian folk culture and literature with Arabic and Islamic culture and literature".
The current heading of the course on Arabic poetic and prose texts of the folk literature major does not fit with the goals and nature of the major. In the design of the proposed heading in this article, three effect-oriented, component-oriented and research-oriented approaches have been considered. In teaching these cases, you can pay attention to these three approaches. This means that in effect-oriented cases, the focus should be on the study of literary components that have an impact on people's culture, in component-oriented cases, emphasis should be placed on comparing and studying the course of changes in literary components, and in research-oriented cases, emphasis should be placed on the reflection of various components of Iranian folk culture in the Arabic collections. By presenting such cases, it is possible to solve part of the historical problem regarding the nature of Iranian folk culture and manners after Islam, and to direct students' minds to the importance of theoretical foundations in research in this field.