نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی ، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه گلستان، گرگان، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The story of Kaveh Ahangar is one of the fascinating stories of the Shahnameh, which has attracted the attention of researchers due to its features such as the uprising against the oppression of the tyrannical king, the victory of the uprising and the dethronement of the cruel king and etc. In addition to Shahnameh, this story can be seen in Asadi Tusi's Garshasb-Nameh and some historical texts after Islam with some differences. But there is no mention of this story in Avesta and Persian texts before Islam And in the Shahnameh, Kaveh appeared only in the story of Fereydoun. For this reason, the origin of this story and the origin of Kaveh's name and character have become controversial. And so far, researchers have presented different theories about it, which can be divided into four categories. The first group believes that Kaveh's name is related to Avestan names but his character is not old and this story was written after the Parthian period which was included in the Sasanian Khoday-Nameh and the legendary history of this period. Ferdinand Justi, Arthur Christensen and Zabihullah Safa can be mentioned in this group. The second group considers his name and character are old and legendary, and they have tried to find a connection between his personality and Kai-Qubad or Tvashtr, the blacksmith of the gods in the Rig Veda personality. Johannes Hertel, Bahman Sarkarati, and Turaj Daryaei can be mentioned in this group. The third group believes that the story of Kaveh is not the mythological story but is a Persian Ayyari story that entered the national epic at the end of the Sassanid period and the beginning of the Islamic period. Mehrdad Bahar is in this group. The fourth category believes that Kaveh has been associated with the cow, which plays an important role against Ahriman from the beginning of creation in Iranian myths, especially in the story of Fereydoun.
Iranian researchers and orientalists have written various articles about the relationship between Kai-Kavus in the mythological texts of Iran and Kavi-Uśanas in the mythological texts of ancient India and they considered these two characters the same in the age of the Vedas. For example, Georges Dumezil, in the book “The plight of a sorcerer”, considered these two characters to be the same. Also, Christensen suggests that India took this character from Iran. Herman Lommel says that in the Rig-Veda Kavi-Uśanas is the only one whose name is connected with the title of Kavi, and in Iran this title is connected only with the name of Kai-Kavus. Mehrdad Bahar, one of the Iranian researchers, believes that in an Indo-Iranian stage, Kavi-Uśanas or Kai-Kavus was a warrior-Priest, and in the Avesta and Pahlavi era, a king-Priest, But in the Persian literature and some Pahlavi narratives, his character has been transformed especially in the Shahnameh, into a tyrannical, imprudent and unwise king.
In the Rig-Veda, the name Kavi-Uśanas is mentioned in three forms: Usana the son of kavi, UŚana kavya and Uśana, and various characteristics and actions have been listed for him. His actions are of four categories: mediating between the Div`s and the Asuras, making a Vajra mace for Indra, knowing the secrets of the cows (sometimes considered treasures), getting rewarded by Indra for serving him. Here we compare the works of UŚana kavya with the works of Kaveh.
3.1- Making a Mace: Making a mace is the most important act of Kavi-Uśanas and Kaveh, because with this mace (Vajra) Indra kills the dragon of drought and darkness Vritra and releases the waters. Although the making of this mace is attributed to Tvashtr (Black Smith), in several hymns of the Rig-Veda, Kavi-Uśanas is the maker of the mace.
3.2- Having Wisdom and knowledge: In the Indian texts, Kavi-Uśanas and his father "Kavi" are attributed to wisdom. In a hymn of the Rig-Veda, Kavi-Uśanas is described as the owner of wisdom and knowledge. Sometimes also the power of prophecy is attributed to them. We can see also this power at Kaveh. For example, after Fereydoun ascended the throne, Zahhak's supporters prevented him from being killed and imprisoned, and Kaveh planned a friendship with Zahhak and then imprisoned him.
3.3- being rich: In the Indian texts, Kavi-Uśanas is very rich. For example, he reigns on the top of Mount Meru, and three-quarters of all the gold and gems in the world belong to him. There are also narrations in Naqqali texts which emphasize that Kaveh was a rich man and owner of a clan.
3.4- Piety: According to the analysis of Georges Dumezil in the Rig-Veda, Kavi-Uśanas is neither a god nor a warrior, but a powerful and wise saint who had an ambiguous personality in the past. Indians and Iranians later mentioned him in two different ways. This feature is also mentioned in the Naqqali scrolls for Kaveh. For example, Zariri says: Kaveh and his children were so chaste, pious, and manly that they were considered saints of God. They never lie or do bad things.
3.5- Magic: In the Indian texts, has been attributed Kavi-Uśanas magical powers several times and there are also stories that he has used this power. Although there is no mention of Kaveh's magical power in the Shahnameh and he is described as a simple blacksmith, in the Naqqali scrolls, not only Kaveh himself is attributed magical powers, but there are also magical elements in his stories.
3.6- panacea: According to a hymn of the Rig-Veda, Kavi-Uśanas has the power to make the old people young and vice versa. He can also raise the dead. This feature is seen in the Shahnameh as a panacea that is kept in the treasure of Kai-Kavus that is mentioned in the story of Rostam and Sohrab.
Kaveh's connection with Kai-Kavus and Kavi-Uśanas is a point that researchers have not paid attention to regarding the origin of Kaveh Ahangar's name and character. Dumezil believes that there are similarities between these two that is neither coincidence nor borrowing. The innovations that are assigned to Kai-Kavus in the Pahlavi and epic texts of the Islamic period are a form of a new dress that preserves the previous materials. Exactly the story of Kaveh is a new version of this ancient myth, which, in addition to the same root of the name, is similar to the story of Kai-Kavus and Kavi-Uśanas in six features: 1- Making a Mace, 2- Having Wisdom and knowledge, 3- being rich, 4- Piety, 5- Magic, 6- panacea. This ancient myth during the transition from the age of mythology to the epic divided into two parts, and each part’s name refers to a character, Kavi and Kaveh became a blacksmith and Uśanas a priest, religious and holy man. But by time, the myth of Kavi-Uśanas was forgotten and Semitic mythology took its place, and the character of Joshua, who was more famous, replaced Uśanas.