نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
2 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
3 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی، دانشکدة ادبیات و علوم انسانی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Victor Emil Frankel (1905-1997) is an Austrian psychiatrist and the founder of the theory of Logotherapy. Logo therapy deals with the importance of understanding and acquiring the meaning of life and is in the line of existential psychotherapy or human psychology. Belief in an unconscious God is one of the foundations of this theory. Unconscious spiritual communication is in the form of prayers and prayers at the time of emergency. Frankel's spiritual unconscious is not related to a particular religion, it originates from human nature and Even in the hearts of those who do not believe in God, there is a Transcendental and personal God. Suppression of belief in God leads to neurosis and it is cured by becoming aware of the remembrance of God. The appearance of innate spirituality and attention to God is in a state of emergency and when a person has lost hope of any help. In this state, a person achieves an indescribable peace that cannot be justified by scientific principles except that this tension is naturally present in the person's unconscious.
Undoubtedly, one of the most fundamental concepts raised in Rumi's thought is the relationship between man and God. In the stories of the Masnavi, he spoke about the existence of a transcendent power inside man and believes that the God-seeking nature of man requires him to remember him in his heart in difficult situations. Even if he does not believe in the existence of God and is a sinner. Those who unconsciously remember him in their troubles make the unconscious supreme God to their consciousness. Human neurosis originates from forgetting the remembrance of God, and its cure is the remembrance of God. It seems that Rumi`s mystical thought is somewhat different from Viktor Frankl's unconscious God. This research shows the basic similarities and differences between these two views and clarifies what points both thinkers have pointed out.
The research questions are to what extent these two views are similar? And what are their possible differences and where do they come from? The hypothesis is that both thinkers generally have the same opinion and believe in the existence of an unconscious God. It seems that the main difference is in the sources of these two views. Frankel expressed this belief in the form of human-centered existential psychology and Rumi based on God-centered Islamic mysticism.
This is theoretical research based on written documents and sources, conducted in a descriptive-analytic method and with a comparative approach. In this article, we examine the similarities and differences between Frankel's spiritual unconscious and Rumi's innate spirituality.
3-1. Unconscious God in Viktor Frankl's theory
One of the foundations of Viktor Frankl's Logo therapy theory is the spiritual unconscious. He expressed this theory in the book the Unconscious God and believes that the word "spiritual" in this interpretation is without its religious meaning and only to show that we are dealing with a special human phenomenon. (see. Frankl, 2014:29)
and only to show that we are dealing with a special human phenomenon. (see. Frankl, 2014:29)
According to Frankel, the unconscious is divided into unconscious instinct and unconscious spirituality. According to Freud, the unconscious is the place of repressed instincts, while spirituality can also be unconscious.
3-1-1. Neurosis with unconscious forgetfulness of God
Frankl believes that by suppressing something at the level of the conscious mind, that thing is pushed into the unconscious, and by removing the suppression, what is in the unconscious becomes conscious. Therefore, those who have repressed the sense of religion and belief in God in their existence suffer from neurosis. (See: Heydari, 2000: 334)
3-1-2. Trans logic and intuitiveness of the unconscious God
Viktor Frankl believes in the presence of God in the heart, but God who does not understand logic and is only in the spiritual unconscious. (See: Marshall, 2017: 68)
3-1-3. Manifestation of unconscious God in all humans at the emergency time
Frankel considers the heart of all human beings to be the place of God's presence and believes that everyone remembers him in some way. (Frankel, 2016: 156) Communication with the forgotten God enters the human heart more in times of emergency and distress and through prayers. (See. Frankel, 2018 A: 152)
3.2. Innate spirituality in Rumi's Masnavi
The focus and destination of Rumi's thought is God. One infinite God whose essence can never be reached, but is present in the human heart. In Rumi's thought, the human soul has a connection with God in the inner hidden layers. The soul is from God and has temporarily descended to the world and finally returns to Him. Man, sometimes forgets his God-seeking nature and seeks the reflection of his existence in another. The unconscious remembrance of God is a proof of the existence of God-seeking nature of man.
3.2.1. Neurosis with forgetfulness of innate spirituality
Despite the divine nature and connection with God, man sometimes forgets his theological background and falls away from him. According to Rumi, the basis of creation of all human beings is based on spirituality and divine presence in the heart. This spirituality is sometimes forgotten and people forget about "him". Rumi, like Frankel, believes that when a person forgets his spiritual nature and neglects the memory of God, he suffers from mental and spiritual diseases. The only way to cure this disease is to remember God and cultivate religious beliefs.
3.2.2. Trans logic and intuitiveness of innate spirituality
According to Rumi, the understanding of God in all existence is based on the spiritual experience of man. God is present inside humans and is understood based on divine nature and love. Sense and intellect do not understand this transcendental spiritual existence and it is only a personal and internal experience. Rumi believes that God's existence cannot be understood by reason and logic, and understanding it is beyond logic. Therefore, it can be said that the basis of the similarity between Rumi's view and Frankel's theory is the inner belief in a transcendent and intuitive existence in the heart, which shows that the nature and creation of man are based on spirituality.
3.2.2. Manifestation of innate spirituality in all humans at the emergency time
According to Rumi's belief, urgency and distress reveal and prove God's existence in the heart of human and make him aware of himself. In difficulties, man understands the God he has forgotten and asks him for his needs. A person who is oblivious to the remembrance of God becomes aware of his presence when he feels helpless and unconsciously prays.
In the Qur'an, there is a story of a group of people who were in danger of drowning and saw no helper, so they sincerely turned to God.) Spider: 65 (Like the story of Daqoghi in the Masnavi, who saw the people of the ship caught in a storm, facing death and praying to God. Also, in the first story of the Masnavi, when the king saw the condition of the maidservant and the inability of the doctors to treat her, he went to the mosque barefoot and begged him for help. A man who lost his inheritance turned to God and asked him for help. In another story, a prince was caught by the magic of an old woman and fell in love with her. The doctors were unable to bring him back to normal. The king prayed to God and his prayer was answered. The old harpist picked up a harp from poverty, prayed to God and received God's mercy and forgiveness.
In Masnavi stories, all human beings are in heart connection with God regardless of any religion or belief, Therefore, it is possible to consider man's attention to God in emergency situations as one of the commonalities of Frankel's theory of unconscious God and innate spirituality in Rumi's thought.
3.2.3. Divine providence is the reason for emergency situation to show innate spirituality
Frankel believes that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between human urgency and prayer to open, but according to Rumi's belief, divine providence sets the stage for emergency so that man returns to his God-seeking nature.
The emergency that God puts on man's path is the same care to turn his neglect towards God into awareness, because man is easily neglected. If someone does not deserve this care, he will not be in this position, like Pharaoh who did not even have a headache in his entire life, so that he would unconsciously pray to God. Nasuh was a man with a feminine face who worked in the women's bathroom. He had repented with his tongue several times, but he had broken the promise again. Divine Providence affected him in a difficult situation. One day, the king's daughter's pearl earrings were lost in the bathroom. They closed the door of the bathroom and searched the clothes, but when they did not find the gem, they asked the women to undress and this was the beginning of Nasuh’s true repentance. Therefore, in Rumi's thought, God exists before human emergency, and emergency is a tool to remember God, but according to Frankel's belief, God comes to the level of consciousness when emergency has occurred.
3.2.3. God's success is a condition for displaying innate spirituality
According to Rumi, divine success is a condition of understanding God in the heart. God provides the necessary means and conditions for a person far away from Him, but He does not give this success to everyone. The issue of divine success is also the difference between the beliefs of Frankel and Rumi. According to Frankel, man is the initiator of the relationship with God. Based on humanist psychology, he believes that it is man's right to connect with God; That is, spiritual transformation begins from within man. The success of remembering God is for all people, including evildoers and sinners, and if God wills, He remembers Himself in their hearts. Rumi claims in his Masnavi that Pharaoh, contrary to his apparent enmity with God, unconsciously remembered him and used to pray with him at night.
The comparative analysis of Rumi’s opinions and Frankel's theory showed that Frankel's view is reductionist due to the basic difference. Frankel only believes in the positive effect of belief in God, but Rumi considers the spiritual dimension of man to be under God's will. Rumi and Frankel's views are similar in two basic aspects: The heart origin of belief in God and treatment with belief in God. However, there is a fundamental difference between these two ideas in the existential nature of God and the relationship between God and man. The most fundamental difference is in God's effectiveness beyond the conscious and unconscious aspects of man. Frankel considers urgency to be the cause of a person's heart's attention to God, but Rumi considers urgency to be a tool in the hands of God for human to pay attention to the origin and to inform the forgetful man. So, when God wants to reveal Himself to the human heart, He creates urgency in him to make him search for Himself. Therefore, according to Rumi’s view, in accordance with Islamic religious and mystical views, placing a person in emergency is a divine favor. But in Frankel's thought, the idea of God originates from the unconscious of the human heart to enable him to overcome difficult situations. For the emergence of the unconscious God, Frankel establishes a cause and effect relationship between urgency and prayer for opening. However, according to the tradition of Islamic mysticism, Maulvi believes that God's grace puts man in a situation of emergency and the means to become aware of God are provided. According to Frankel, man is the initiator of the relationship with God, and the establishment of the relationship is from man to God, but from Rumi’s point of view, God is the initiator of the relationship and gives human success of remembering him. In a summary, it can be said that Frankel's view is a secular view of God, despite the spiritual dimension. This point of view confirms the therapeutic aspects of believing in God according to Rumi (religious and mystical approach). But from the aspect of theology, these two views are completely separate and even contradict each other. Beyond the therapeutic issue of believing in God, Maulvi considers the manifestation of belief in God in the human heart as a transhuman thing. But in Frankel's theory, attention to God is purely human and belongs to the immaterial dimension of human existence. With a functionalist and utilitarian view, Frankel considers the idea of God to be useful and therapeutic for humans, but Rumi has an existential and ultimate view of believing in God in humans, beyond therapeutic utility.