عنوان مقاله [English]
The contexts and factors that create contemporary fiction in Arabic and Persian literature are close to each other; In particular, in both languages, the story is derived from Western storytelling patterns, meaning that the similarities have led many scholars to believe that the style of writing of one of the two is influenced by the other, although it does not have an effect. Can be denied. (Mirsadeghi, 1376: 180) Short story appeared in the eighties of the nineteenth century in the West and entered these lands simultaneously with the political and social developments of the first half of the contemporary century in Iran and the Arab countries. (Rasouli, 1391: 65) and with the initiative of great intellectuals such as Naeema in Lebanon and Jamalzadeh in Iran, it became one of the most important types of literature in these countries. At this time, Naeema established a new way in the literature of that time by collecting her works entitled "Kan-Makan". He always based his stories on social problems and spoke about the sufferings of the people of his country. He was born in 1889 in Baskenta, Lebanon, to a Christian and Arab family. (Al-Khoury, 1991: 23)
He spent 20 years of his life in the United States and is one of the emigrants. Although Qajar Iran was one of the most tense periods in Iranian history; But it had a profound effect on Persian literature. From then on, Iranian writers set out to invent a new style to awaken and make people aware of the current situation, and to lead all classes towards reconciliation with literature by simplifying and avoiding complex and complex prose. Meanwhile, one of the most prominent cultural figures in Iran is Jamalzadeh, who has made great efforts to revive literature. He is one of the great writers and translators who in the literary history of Iran has always been mentioned as the father of short stories in Persian and the initiator of the realist style in literature. In this article, an attempt has been made to make a comparative study of the short stories of two great writers of Lebanese and Iranian literature, Naeema and Jamalzadeh. The style and characteristics of both authors' short stories have been researched with an emphasis on their short stories in order to determine the similarities and differences between their short story writing styles.
In this article, an analytical-comparative method has been done between the two story series "Kanomakan" and "yekibud yeki nabud" by Jamalzadeh. The content study of this type of literature can be a new approach in the field of social studies. In this method, a comparative study of the short stories of two great writers of Lebanese and Iranian literature, Naeema and Jamalzadeh, was carried out. The style and characteristics of both authors' short stories have been researched with an emphasis on their short stories in order to determine the similarities and differences between their short story writing styles.
There is no doubt that the Arabs have been familiar with the story for a long time. The existence of the authorities and the stories of Alf Layla and Layla is a proof of that. Ancient Arab fiction did not have a specific style and style in the modern way, and they took its style, thought and subject from the West. In this period, we are witnessing the flourishing of short stories, especially in Lebanon. Most of the writers of short stories in Lebanon, such as Naeema, Gibran Khalil Gibran, Tawfiq, were emigrants, and had studied the literature of other countries. Short story as a form of fiction was formed in Iran by people like Jamalzadeh and continued its evolution along with literary currents; The first collection of short stories to be published in book form; Jamalzadeh's "yeki bud yeki nabud" collection was in 1300 AD.This collection had differences in characterization, narrative methods and language with its previous examples, and Jamalzadeh's ability is more reflected in the short story.He admits that he used the story as a means of preserving proverbs and sentences. (Mir Abedini, 1387:80)
The Kanomakan Collection is a book of prose that contains six short stories written by Naeema in Mahjar. The stories of this book are: "Sat Al-Koko, sonateha aljadida, Al-Aqr, Al-zakhira, Saadah Al-Bayk and Shurti" The heroes of his stories in "Kan Makan" series are more than the capitalist class -Writing is at a high level. In the four stories of "Kan Makan", Naeema has used methods for narrating the stories that take them out of the state of monotony and mere definition, and this is one of the positive features of this book. These stories are:"sonateha aljadida, Al-Aqr, Al-Zakhira and Saada Al-Bayk." (See: Al-Sayyid, 1974: 240-242)
Jamalzadeh is a contemporary Iranian writer and translator. He is considered the father of Persian short stories and the originator of the style of realism in literature. He published the first collection of Iranian short stories entitled "One was not a Buddhist" in 1300 in Berlin. His story has social and political themes. In addition to revolutionizing Persian prose, he consciously used the technique of European storytelling. He recommends the whole style of simplification to Iranian writers, and perhaps for this reason, the theme of the first story of "Farsi Shekar ast" is about simplification and simplification. Jamalzadeh's collection "yeki bud yeki nabud" is a collection consisting of an introduction, six short stories and a collection of slang Persian words, which was published in 1300. Its six stories are: "Farsi shekar ast, Rajol siasi, Dusti khale kherse,Darde dele Mullah Ghorban Ali, Bile Dig Bile choghondar and Vilan Al-Dawlah". This book is considered to be the beginning of Persian realist literature and Iranian short stories and the starting point of change in Iranian fiction. "Jamalzadeh is the first Iranian writer to use the European storytelling industry with conscious intent." (Mir Abedini, 1387: 83)
In comparing the authors of the two story series "Kanomakan" and "yeki bud yeki nabud", it should be said that both authors can be considered as migrant writers; Naima has experienced both Arab and American environments and Jamalzadeh has experienced both Iranian and American environments. They mapped the culture, literature and contemporary thought of their country. Jamalzadeh's role in contemporary Iranian culture, literature and thought is more of a historical role. Through his efforts, the modern experiences of Iranians gradually took shape. It should be emphasized that although Jamalzadeh pays more attention to "theme" and "subject" than "form" and "structure", but his innovations in the narrative forms before him are also remarkable. It is worth considering. (Moshtaghmehr, 1387:138)
The language used by Naeema and Jamalzadeh in their stories is on the border of "old" and "new". Ancient themes, elements and expressions can be seen in their works. Their language is full of slang terms, allusions and expressions. In all her stories, Naima has tried to express the problems, social, religious, and cultural issues of the people in simple language. The language of Jamalzadeh's stories is always eloquent, descriptive, fluent and conversational. In analyzing the titles of the two story series from the point of view of form, it should be said that the main title of Naeimeh series "Kanomakan" and the title of the series "One was and one was not" are Jamalzadeh in sentence form. The formal title "Kanomakan" clearly indicates the narrative type of the work, although it puts the reader in anticipation of an old story. The titles in the collection of Naima "sonateha aljadida, Al-Aqr, Saadat Al-Bayk and Shorty" and the titles "Dusti khale kherse, Darde dele Ghorban Ali, Bile Dig Bile choghondar and Vilan Al-Dawlah" are among the formal titles that determine the type of story in the collection.
In analyzing the two titles from the content point of view, it should be said that the titles of Naimeh and Jamalzadeh are not in conflict with each other; Rather, they affirm each other, both of which, as belonging to tradition, are reminiscent of earlier traditional anecdotes and ancient literature; Especially in Jamalzadeh's collection, where the title "anecdote" at the beginning of all six stories in this collection is reminiscent of the traditional structure of stories and anecdotes of ancient fiction.
In the title of these two collections, "Kanomakan" and "One was not Buddhist", there is a lexical contrast (Kan and Makan) and (was and was not), and between the titles of the two collections, there is a lexical inconsistency; In this way, "where and when" and "yeki bud yeki nabud" cause a contradiction of words, and a contradiction in the composition or sentence leads to inconsistency between the cohesive group in the sentence and creates a linguistic joke. (Fotouhi, 1390: 383)
One of the tricks that Naimeh and Jamalzadeh use to attract the reader in their collection is ambiguity and suspension, which creates ambiguity in the reader's mind and forces him to read the story to the end. And in the text of the stories of both collections, there are signs of the tendency to die. It brings and this is one of the positive features of these two sets. In terms of commonalities and differences between the two works, it should be noted that both stories are very similar in form and appearance; In a way, both series have six short stories that are arranged in sequence without interrupting or separating the stories. Both writers wrote abroad and are somewhat cultured in Western culture, but their collection of stories mirrors the whole situation and culture of their country and has a completely Eastern spirit. The perspective of both Naimeh and Jamalzadeh is often "I am a narrator" in which the narrator is one of the characters in the story and from his own language (first person inside) or one of the sub-characters (first person outside) Narrates.
The collection"yeki bud yeki nabud" has a common feature, and that feature is introducing the hero as a "brigade" and not giving the reader a chance to know him through his actions. (Kamshad, 1384:164) In both Naimeh and Jamalzadeh collections, the hidden and latent concept of dialectics is "was and was not" and the transition from "bud" to "nabud" is a dialectical change that is manifested in the form of contradiction, controversy, conflict and change. The language used by Naeema and Jamalzadeh in their stories is on the border between "old" and "new". Ancient themes, elements and expressions can be seen in their works. Their language is full of slang terms, allusions and expressions. In the difference between the stories of Naeema and Jamalzadeh, it should be said that the dominant element in the titles of Naeema's stories, in addition to slang and oral language and its story and elements, is society, people and social, religious and cultural problems. (Mahdavi Mehr, 1397: 15) While the dominant element in the titles of Jamalzadeh's story is the emphasis on slang and oral language and the story and its elements. (See: Jamalzadeh, 2005:28-13)
Naima used the element of religion in her collection and in the story (Al-Aqr) she did not refer to the Holy Spirit and the Holy Mary and religious beliefs, and the use of proverbs and reflections of beliefs is one of the features of her stories. , 1074: 352); Meanwhile, Jamalzadeh's collection is devoid of religious and ideological symbols. The protagonist in Naeema's "Kanomakan" series is more than the affluent class, which is influenced by Russian stories. Meanwhile, the protagonist of the Jamalzadeh series is a "brigade". (Kamshad, 1384: 164) In Naeema's stories, woman has a prominent and colorful role, while in Jamalzadeh's stories, women always play a small role in society, and the reason is the closed society of that time, which caused , To confine the people to the customs and traditions.In the "Kanomakan" collection, Naeema is a little humorous and has almost no place, but there are different types of humor in Jamalzadeh's collection, and perhaps the reason for this is the characteristics of Jamalzadeh's collection that do not have the necessary maturity, and yet the first It is the way of storytelling. The characterization of Naeema is more complex than Jamalzadeh in "Kanomakan" series. Naeema's characterization is such that contradictions become apparent over time. Like what is said in the style of speech in the "Kanomakan" collection, Naeema is more realistic and realism has a higher frequency, and in Jamalzadeh's collection, the element of imagination is more frequent.
The following two sets of results are obtained from analytical-comparative comparison: These two stories are among the first examples of new short stories in Iran and Lebanon, and the authors are both the father of short stories and the giver of a revival of Arabic and Persian prose. In the stories of Naeema and Jamalzadeh, there is no such complex knot that throwing or gradually opening it gives the story ups and downs and guides the reader step by step with the story. The most characteristic features of Naeema's short stories are the abundance of social themes and the expression of pains such as poverty and misery, class distance, and betrayal in the family center. In all his stories, he has tried to reflect the problems of the people, social, religious, religious and cultural issues and to deal with the lives of different sections of society.
Attention to simplification, expression of pure truths of the time, use of slang terms and interpretations, presence of contradictions and double confrontations in Jamalzadeh's collection, make the story comprehensible to the public and bring it to the traditional structure of fairy tales. Ancient resembles. Jamalzadeh's stories are more like memoirs (and in the story: "Dusti Khaleh Kherseh, Bile Dig and Beleg chondar" to the travelogue). Jamalzadeh has paid attention to the element of politics in the story and it can be seen in the story of "Al rajol siasi".
By choosing the concise titles "Kanomakan" and "yeki bud yeki nabud", Naeema and Jamalzadeh paid attention to the musical components and consciously used the European storytelling technique. The titles of Jamalzadeh collection, from the point of view of form, have more variety and dynamism than Naimeh collection, and it has different types of titles such as phrase, combination, and phrase. In terms of content, the dominant element in the titles of Jamalzadeh's stories is the emphasis on language, story and its elements, while the dominant element in Naima's story is, in addition, the content, society, people and religion. Jamalzadeh is more important than "structure" and "form" for "subject" and "theme", but his innovations in narrative forms are also noteworthy.
The protagonists of Naima's stories in the "Kan Makan" series are more than the affluent class, and most of the stories in this book are at a high level in terms of observing the principles of storytelling. Jamalzadeh admits that he was in one and he was not in one, that he has used the format of the story as a means to preserve the proverbs, rulings and culture of populism.
Keywords :Mikhail Naima, Kan Makan, Jamalzadeh, yeki bud yeki nabud, Adaptive literature.