بررسی اسامی غیربومی («دیگری») قهرمانان در ادبیات روسی و فارسی (بر اساس آثار چخوف، ن.گومیلیوف، علوی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد زبان و ادبیات روسی دانشکدۀ زبان‌ها و ادبیات خارجی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد ادبیات روسی، دانشکدۀ زبان‌ها و ادبیات خارجی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

10.22103/jcl.2022.19172.3451

چکیده

نام بخشی از هویت انسان است که تحت‌تأثیر عوامل گوناگون برای نوزاد انتخاب می‌شود و معمولاً انتخاب نام در بدو تولد و یا قبل از آن توسط دیگران انجام می‌گیرد. ولی در آثار ادبی، نویسنده به اختیار خود و بر اساس موضوعی‌که در اثر به آن می‌پردازد، برای قهرمان داستانش نامی را برمی‌گزیند. بررسی اسامی قهرمانان به ما کمک می‌کند تا درک بهتر و عمیق‌تری از اثر داشته باشیم. گاهی در آثار ادبی شاهد انتخاب اسامی غیربومی برای تعدادی از قهرمانان توسط نویسنده هستیم که دلایل آن می‌تواند متعدد باشد. بعد از تحولات سال‌ 1320 در ایران، جامعه روشنفکر شدیداً در پی جریانات سیاسی و اجتماعی زیر هجوم ترجمه‌های غربی و از جلمه روسی قرار داشت، نویسندگان گاهی به‌‌تأسی از الگوهای مورد علاقه، برای قهرمانان خود نام غیربومی انتخاب می‌کردند، به‌ویژه نویسندگانی که در خارج از کشور نیز مدتی سکونت داشته‌اند. برای نمونه می‌توان به اسامی غیربومی قهرمانان (کاتوشکا، مارفینکا، مارگریتا) در آثار بزرگ علوی اشاره کرد. این اتفاق در ادبیات روسی هم می‌افتد. نیکالای گومیلیوف نویسنده و شاعر سدۀ بیستم نیز به‌دلیل سفرهایش به ممالک شرقی و آشنایی با عرفان و شاعران ایران‌زمین، آثاری خلق کرد که در آنها به قهرمانان خود نام غیربومی (حافظ، درویش، پری) داده است. با بررسی اسامی در برخی آثار روسی و فارسی به این نتیجه می‌رسیم که نویسندگان روسی و ایرانی تحت‌تأثیر عواملی برای قهرمانان خود نام غیربومی انتخاب کرده‌اند که تأثیرگذارترین آن جریانات سیاسی و اجتماعی، آشنایی نویسنده با آثار ادبی سایر ملل، حضورش در ممالک دیگر، ....

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of Non-Native (Foreign) Name of Characters in Russian and Persian Literature (Based on the Works of A. Chekhov, N. Gumilyov, B. Alavi)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Yahyapour 1
  • Janelah Karimi-Motahhar 1
  • Marzieh Moradi 2
1 Professor of Russian Language and Literature, Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature, University of Tehran, Iran
2 M.A. in Russian Language and Literature, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
 
 
 

Introduction

The name is a part of the human identity chosen for the baby under the influence of various factors. Generally, others take a name at birth or before that. But in literary works, the author selects a name for the hero based on the subject and his discretion. Based on different reasons, authors choose a non-native name for their heroes. The names of literary characters are very diverse and numerous; depending on the type of incident, moral characteristics, and the role of the hero in the works made up by the author, they can borrow from different nations, get some religious roots, or follow a certain literary current, Etc. By naming heroes, the author gives identity and human life to them. Exploring the naming issue will make you more familiar with the idea of literary work.
 

Methodology

This study has done by descriptive analysis method and using library research. The present study is very immodest to comprehend and understand the characters of heroes in literary works through understanding their names. The purpose of this study is to answer the questions like: "What is the reason for choosing Eastern names by Russian writers in their works?", "What is the reason for choosing Russian names in Persian literary works?" and "What is the basis of choosing the names of heroes in Persian and Russian works, including the works of Anton Chekhov, Nikolay Gumilyov, and Bozorg Alavi?". Works used in this study include The role of specific names in the literary works by Mikhailov V.N., The poetics of names in the works of Bunin. I.A by Bazhenova. Y.V, Memoirs of Bozorg Alavi by Ahmadi. H. and Review of Chekhov's early stories: "Death of a Government Clerk", "Fat and Thin" and "The Chameleon" by Yahyapour. M. and Karimi Motahhar. J.
 

Discussion

The present study will explain why the heroes are named in some Russian and Persian literary works and will help to comprehend the works of Russian and Iranian poets and authors by expressing new opinions. The names of literary characters are very diverse and numerous. Reasons for choosing a non-native name can vary. For instance, after the evolution of 1941 in Iran, the intellectual community, besides following political and social currents, was heavily influenced by Western and Russian translations. Authors, especially those who have lived for some time in a foreign country, based on their interest, picked a non-native name for their heroes in stories; we can mention the non-native names of the heroes (Babushka, Marfinka, Margerita) in the works of Bozorg Alavi. The transition period and currents after September 1941 had a superior impact on the hero name chosen in Persian literature, especially in the works of Bozorg Alavi. Due to his political tendencies, thoughts and ideas, association with Russians, and interest in Russian literature, Bozorg Alavi was able to create works that make you feel the atmosphere of Russian and Western society, so naturally, taking Russian names for heroes helped him in this matter. The presence of heroes with a Russian name, Russian originality or growth by Soviet Union rules, also references to the works of two famous Russian writers (Pushkin and Dostoevsky) indicate Alavi's great interest and enthusiasm toward Russian literature. There is a connection between the name and heroes’ characteristics, and also the purpose and reason for choosing such a name by the author, by identifying the reasons for using a non-native name in his works. Living abroad and reading foreign authors' literary works in the original language, particularly Russian, helped him create a new style of fiction writing. This issue also happens in Russian literature. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Russian writers and poets, like Europeans, paid attention to the culture and literature of the Eastern countries, especially Iran, which is why Eastern names often were found in their works. For example, Twentieth-century writer and poet Nikolai Gumilyov also created works wherein he gave his heroes non-native names (Hafez, Darvish, Peri) due to his travels to Eastern countries and his acquaintance with Iranian poets. Gomilyov's interest in Eastern and Persian literature is due to his frequent traveling to some Eastern countries and his association with the poets and writers of the Bashnya (Dome) in Saint Petersburg; these interests led him to create Eastern-based work and use Eastern names and mythological characters. Choosing the Eastern name in his works indicates his interest in Eastern mysticism.
 

Conclusion

As previously mentioned, the transition period and currents after September 1941 had a superior impact on the heroes’ name choices in Persian literature, especially in the works of Bozorg Alavi. Bozorg Alavi was able to create works that made you feel the atmosphere of Russian and Western society due to his political tendencies, thoughts and ideas, association with Russians, and interest in Russian literature. Therefore, it was natural for him to choose Russian names for his heroes. By identifying the reasons for using non-native names in his works, we realize that there is a connection between the name and the character of the hero, as well as the purpose and reason for choosing such a name as the author. Living abroad, and reading foreign authors' literary works in the original language, helped him create a new style of fiction writing. Gumilyov also chose non-native names for his heroes due to his interest in Hafez, Eastern mysticism, and his presence in Eastern and Muslim countries. Choosing the Eastern name in his works indicates his interest in Eastern mysticism. Thus, the most influential factors in taking the non-native name for the heroes are political and social currents, as well as the tendency and interest of authors in the literature and culture of the "Foreign".

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Eastern and Russian names
  • Bozorg Alavi
  • Anton Chekhov
  • Nikolai Gumilyov
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